Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Page: 209-214
Phytochemical and Proximate Analysis of Some Medicinal Leaves
Abiodun Bukunmi Aborisade, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State College of Technology, Esa Oke, Nigeria
Adewale Adetutu, Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 1, 2017;       Accepted: Jul. 11, 2017;       Published: Dec. 25, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20170606.16      View  1666      Downloads  53
Abstract
The proximate analysis and the phytochemical constituents were investigated in Magnifera, Morinda lucida, Parquetina nigrescens, Oscmium gratissimum, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Veronia amygaldalina using standard reference methods. The proximate analysis in % showed that Chenopodium ambrosioides had the highest amount of ash content of 17.30 and moisture content of 89.40 while Magnifera indica had the lowest amount of ash content 12.04 and moisture content 68.40. Veronia amygaldalina had the highest amount of protein 30.02 and carbohydrate 54.00 while Parquetina nigrescens had the least amount of protein 25.06 and carbohydrate 40.23. Parquetina nigrescens had the highest amount of crude fibre of 25.05 while Chenopodium ambrosioides had the highest amount of crude fat 18.22. The moisture content was found to be 89.40%, ash content 17.30, fat 18.22%, protein 30.02%, crude fibre 25.05% and carbohydrate 54.00%. The phytochemical constituents indicated flavonoid 28.58% alkaloid 25.84% and tannin 2.94% in Magnifera indica, Veronia amygaldalina and Morinda lucida respectively. The presence of high secondary metabolites in the leaves are good indication that if the plant is subjected to further research such as identification and characterization of plant, bioactive compounds with strong biological activities may be isolated and novel compounds may also be identified.
Keywords
Medicinal Leaves, Proximate Analysis, Phytochemical Analysis
To cite this article
Abiodun Bukunmi Aborisade, Adewale Adetutu, Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Phytochemical and Proximate Analysis of Some Medicinal Leaves, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2017, pp. 209-214. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20170606.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Abolaji A. O., Adebayo A. H. and Odesanmi O. S. (2007). Nutritional qualities of three medicinal plant parts (Xylopia aethiopica, Blighia sapida and Parinari polyandra) commonly used by pregnant women in western part of Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6: 665-668.
[2]
Ademola I. O. and Eloff J. N. (2011). Anthelminthic activity of acetone extract and fractions of Vernonia amygdalina against Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae. Tropical Animal Health Production. 43:521-527.
[3]
Adegoke A., Fadipin G. and Kotitu A. (2006). An assessment of dietary fiber intake of selected students in the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, African Journal Of Biomedical Research, (3), 157-162.
[4]
Adewunmi C. O. and Adesogan E. K. (1984). Anthraquinones and oruwacin from Morinda lucida as possible agents in fasciolasis and schistosomiasis control. Fitoterapia 55: 259-263.
[5]
Adodo A. (2002). Nature power: Revised edition. (Don Bosco Training centre, Akure).
[6]
Agbor A. G. and Odetola A. A. (2005). Effect of Parquetina nigrescens on erythrocyte indices and serum electrolytes of rats following acute blood loss. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8: 527–531.
[7]
Akindahunsi A. A. and Salawu S. O. (2005). Phytochemical screening and nutrient-antinutrient composition of selected tropical green vegetables. African Journal Biotechnology. 4: 497-502.
[8]
Akinmoladun C., Ibukun E. O., Obuotor E. M. and Farombi E. O. (2007). Phytochemical constituent and antioxidants activity of extract from leaves Ocimum gratissimum, Science Research Essay. Volume. 2: 163-166.
[9]
Akubugwo E., Obasi N. A., Chinyere G. C., and Ugobogu A. E. (2007). Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hyobridus. African Journal of Biotechnology. Volume 6: 2883-2889.
[10]
Antia B. S., Akpan E. J., Okon P. A. and Umoren I. U. (2006). Nutritive and antinutritive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 5: 166-168.
[11]
Asquith T. N., and Butter L. G. (1986). Interaction of condensed tannins with selected proteins. Phytochemistry journal Volume 25:1591-1593.
[12]
Awoyinka A. O., Balogun I. O. and Ogunnowo A. A. (2007). phyochemical screening and invitro bioactivity of Cnidoscolus aconitiifolus (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Medicinal plants Research. Volume 3: 63-65.
[13]
Bello S., Oduola T., Adeosun O. G., Omisore N. O. A., Raheem G. O., and Ademosun A. A. (2009). Evaluation of antimalarial activity of various fractions of Morinda lucida leaf extract and Alstonia boonei stem bark. Global Journal of Pharmacology 3: 163-165.
[14]
Brenan P. M. (1996). Flora of Tropical East Africa. East Africa Literature Bureau, Nairobi.
[15]
Chit wood D. J. (2003). Phytochemical based strategies for nematodes control. Annual Review of Phytopathology. Volume 40: 221-249.
[16]
Crellin J. K., Philport J. and Tommie B. (1989). A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants: Herbal Medicine, Past and Present, Duke University Press, page. 265.
[17]
Craig W. (1999). Health-promoting properties of common herbs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (3), 491-499.
[18]
Cushnie T. P. and Lamb A. J. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Volume 26:343-356.
[19]
Dokai P. N., Oyenuga M., Otumara A. and Ekeh F. C. (2010). Phytochemical and antioxidant nutrient constituents of Carica papaya and Parquetina nigrescens extracts. Scientific Research and Essays 5: 2201–2205.
[20]
Ebun-Oluwa and Alade A. S. (2007). Nutritional Potential of Berlandier Nettle spurge (Jatropha cathatica) seed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Volume 6: 345-348.
[21]
Ene-Obong H. N. and Carnovale E. (1992). A comparison of the proximate, mineral and amino acid composition of some known and lesser known legumes in Nigeria. Food Chemistry 43: 169-175.
[22]
Erasto P., Grierson D. S. and Afolayan A. J. (2007). Evaluation of Antioxidant activity and the fatty acid profile of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina growing in South Africa. Food Chemistry. 104:636-642.
[23]
F. N. D. (2002). Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicines. National Academy of sciences. Dietary reference intake for energy, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acid (Micronutrients). www.nap.edu
[24]
Faruq U. Z., Sanni A., and Hassan L. G. (2002). Proximate composition of sickle pod. Senna obstusfolia leaves. Nigeria Journal of Basic Applied Science. Volume 11:157-158.
[25]
Ghosal S., Krishna-Prasad B. N. and Laksmi V. (1996). Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vivo. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. Volume 50:167-170.
[26]
Gills L. S. (1992). Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. University of Benin Press, Benin City, Edo state; Nigeria. Page 65-75.
[27]
Grassi L. T., Malheiros A., Meyre-Silva C., Buss Z. S., Monguilho E. D., Frode T. S., Silva KABS and Souza M. M. (2013): From popular use to pharmacological validation: A study of the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and healing effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 145: 127-138.
[28]
Hussain N. M., Muse R., Ahmad S., Ramali J., Mahmood M., Sulaiman M. R., Shukor M. Y. A., Rahman M. F. A., and Aziz K. N. K. (2009). Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology. Volume 8:2835-2842.
[29]
Igile G. O., Olesezk W., Burda S. and Jurzysta M. (1995). Nutritional assessment of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in growing mice. Journal of Agriculture, Food Chemistry. 43:2162-2166.
[30]
Iniaghe O. M., Malomo S. O. and Adebayo J. O. (2009). Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of some Acalypha species. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8: 256-258.
[31]
Imaga N. A., Gbenle G. O., Okochi V. I., Adenekan S., Duro-Emmanuel T., Oyeniyi B., Kayode A. A., Kayode O. T. and Odetola A. A. (2009). Anti-ulcerogenic activity of two extracts of Parquetina nigrescens and their effects on mucosal antioxidants defense system on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 3: 102–108.
[32]
Ishida K., Kato T., Murakami M., Watanabe M. and Watanabe M. F. (2000). Microginins, zinc metalloproteases inhibitors from the cynobacterium Microcytis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron 56: 8643-8656.
[33]
Isong E. U. and Idan U. (1997). Comparatives studies on the nutritional and toxic composition of three varieties of Lieanthera Africana. Plants Food and Human Nutrition. 51:79-84.
[34]
Javanmerdi J., Stushnoff C., Lockie E. and Vivanco M. (2003) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Iranian Ocimum accession, Journal of Food Chemistry, (83) 547 -550.
[35]
John T. (1996) Phytochemicals as evolutionary mediators of human nutritional physiology, International Journal of Pharmcology, 34 (95), 327-334.
[36]
Kambu k. (1990). Elements de Phytotherapie Comparee. Plantes Medicinales Africaines. CRP, Kinshasa
[37]
Kayode A. A., Kayode O. T. and Odetola A. A. 2009. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of two extracts of Parquetina nigrescens and their effects on mucosal antioxidants defense system on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 3: 102–108.
[38]
Koumaglo K., Gbeassor M., Nikabu O., de Souza C. and Werner W. (1992). Effects of three compounds extracted from Morinda lucida on Plasmodium falciparum. Planta Medicinal journal 58: 533-553.
[39]
Lawal I., Uzokwe N., Igboanugo A., Adio A., Awosan E., Nwogwugwu J., Faloye B., Olatunji B. and Adesoga A. (2010) Phytochemical, vitamin and proximate composition of Dacryodes edulis fruit at different stages of maturation, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4 (1), 4-7.
[40]
McDevitt J. T., Schneider D. M., Katiyar S. K. and Edlind F. S. (1996). Berberina: a candidate for the treatment of diarrhea in AIDS patients abstract. In program and Abstracts of the 36th Interscience conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.
[41]
Nwanjo H. U. (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models. Nigeria Journal of Physiological Science. 20: 30-34.
[42]
Pastor J., García M., Steinbauer S., Setzer W. N., Scull R., Gille L. and Monzote L. (2015): Combinations of ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide against Leishmania. Acta Tropical journal 145: 31-38.
[43]
Pandey P., Mehta R. and Upadhyay R. (2013). Physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Psoralea corylifolia. Arch Applied Science Research; 5:261-265.
[44]
Pearson J. (1976). Determination of phytic acid and phosphorus content of biological materials. Cambridge University Press, London.
[45]
Scalbert A. (1991). Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry journal. Volume 30:3875-3882.
[46]
Sofowora E. A. (2008). Medicinal plant and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and sons limited Page 1-10.
[47]
Sousa Z. L., Oliveira F. F., Conceição A. O., Silva L. A. M., Rossi M. H. and Santos J. S. (2012): Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi. Annual Clinical journal of Microbiology. Antimicrobiology. 11 page 20.
[48]
Taiwo C. A. J, Oyedepo J., Adebayo B., Oluwadare I. and Agboto D. (2009). Nutrient content and antinutritional factor in shea butter (Butryospermum parkil) leaves. Africa journal of Biotechnology, 8: 5888-5890.
[49]
Tona L., Cimanga R. K., Mesia K., Musuamba C. T., De Bruyne T., Apers S., Hernans N., Van Miert S., Pieters L., Totté J. and Vlietinck A. J. (2004). In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93: 27-32.
Browse journals by subject