Volume 9, Issue 3, May 2020, Page: 47-53
Investigation on the Cognitive Situation of Gargles by Dentists with Different Titles in a Province of China: A Cross-sectional Survey
Na Liu, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University & Hebei Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shijiazhuang, China
Yue Liu, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University & Hebei Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shijiazhuang, China
Hailin Zhang, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University & Hebei Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shijiazhuang, China
Qing Liu, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University & Hebei Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shijiazhuang, China
Received: May 8, 2020;       Accepted: May 26, 2020;       Published: Jun. 3, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20200903.11      View  315      Downloads  125
Background and objective: We found that the phenomenon of unreasonable use of gargles is common in clinical practice, which is closely related to the lack of recognition of gargles by dentists. In this study, some dentists in Hebei province of China were investigated to find some problems with their cognition and some reasonable suggestions were put forward. Methods: 600 dentists were chosen by stratified random sampling. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed online to study the knowledge of those dentists with different professional titles on the gargles types, drug resistance, adverse reactions, potential risks and anti-Candida albicans. 576 questionnaires were collected, of which 528 were valid. All valid questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS21.0 software. Results: As for the gargle types, doctors who knew nothing about it accounted for 15.15%. 51.52% of the dentists did not pay attention to the drug resistance. As for the adverse reactions of compound chlorhexidine gargle, doctors who chose "no adverse reactions" and "unclear" accounted for 8.71% and 32.58% respectively. The awareness of "taste change" of primary dentists was lower than that of senior dentists (P<0.05). As for the potential risks of long-term and frequent use of gargles, 87.50% of doctors chose "Oral flora disorder". Doctors who chose other risks were relatively few accounting for 6.44%, and those who chose "unclear" accounted for 12.12%. As for the cognition of gargles against Candida albicans, 7.58% of dentists chose "unclear". Conclusion: The overall cognition of gargles by dentists with different titles is not comprehensive or accurate.
Dentists, Gargles, Cognition, Survey
To cite this article
Na Liu, Yue Liu, Hailin Zhang, Qing Liu, Investigation on the Cognitive Situation of Gargles by Dentists with Different Titles in a Province of China: A Cross-sectional Survey, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 9, No. 3, 2020, pp. 47-53. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20200903.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Blom T, Slot DE, Quirynen M, et al. The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2012, 10: 209-22.
Marsh PD. Contemporary perspective on plaque control. Br Dent J, 2012, 212: 601-6.
Prasad M, Patthi B, Singla A, et al. The Clinical Effectiveness of Post-Brushing Rinsing in Reducing Plaque and Gingivitis: A Systematic Review. J Clin Diagn Res, 2016, 10: E1-7.
Zero DT. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies. BMC Oral Health, 2006, 6 Suppl 1: S9.
Albert-Kiszely A, Pjetursson BE, Salvi GE, et al. Comparison of the effects of cetylpyridinium chloride with an essential oil mouth rinse on dental plaque and gingivitis - a six-month randomized controlled clinical trial. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY, 2007, 34: 658-67.
Barnett ML. The rationale for the daily use of an antimicrobial mouthrinse. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION, 2006, 137 Suppl: 16S-21S.
Eslami H, Pouralibaba F, Falsafi P, et al. Efficacy of Hypozalix spray and propolis mouthwash for prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in leukemic patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects, 2016, 10: 226-33.
Hwang BY, Roberts SK, Chadwick LR, et al. Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens. PLANTA MEDICA, 2003, 69: 623-7.
Marinho VC, Higgins JP, Sheiham A, et al. Combinations of topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, varnishes) versus single topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004: D2781.
Palmer KL, Kos VN, Gilmore MS. Horizontal gene transfer and the genomics of enterococcal antibiotic resistance. CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY, 2010, 13: 632-9.
Van der Weijden FA, Van der Sluijs E, Ciancio SG, et al. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control? Dent Clin North Am, 2015, 59: 799-829.
Lu HX, Tao DY, Lo E, et al. The 4th National Oral Health Survey in the Mainland of China: Background and Methodology 2018.
Frere JM, Sauvage E, Kerff F. From "An Enzyme Able to Destroy Penicillin" to Carbapenemases: 70 Years of Beta-lactamase Misbehaviour. CURRENT DRUG TARGETS, 2016, 17: 974-82.
Sharma VK, Johnson N, Cizmas L, et al. A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. CHEMOSPHERE, 2016, 150: 702-14.
Yong D, Toleman MA, Giske CG, et al. Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla (NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2009, 53: 5046-54.
Martinez JL. General principles of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Drug Discov Today Technol, 2014, 11: 33-9.
Bao ZY, Lin Q, Meng YH, et al. [Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2016, 48: 76-9.
Autio-Gold J. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention. OPERATIVE DENTISTRY, 2008, 33: 710-6.
Ebo DG, Bridts CH, Stevens WJ. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis from chlorhexidine: diagnostic possibilities. CONTACT DERMATITIS, 2006, 55: 301-2.
Lim KS, Kam PC. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. Anaesth Intensive Care, 2008, 36: 502-12.
Kulkarni VV, Damle SG. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of sodium fluoride, chlorhexidine and triclosan mouth rinses in reducing the mutans streptococci count in saliva: an in vivo study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2003, 21: 98-104.
Naik BS, Shetty N, Maben EV. Drug-induced taste disorders. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2010, 21: 240-3.
Atala MH, Ustaglu G, Atala N, et al. Effect of different mouthwashes on discoloration of plaque-free tooth surfaces. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DENTISTRY, 2018, 31: 211-4.
Delgado AJ, Dias RA, Quesada A, et al. Potential erosive effect of mouthrinses on enamel and dentin. Gen Dent, 2018, 66: 75-9.
Boffetta P, Hayes RB, Sartori S, et al. Mouthwash use and cancer of the head and neck: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER PREVENTION, 2016, 25: 344-8.
Gulati M, Nobile CJ. Candida albicans biofilms: development, regulation, and molecular mechanisms. MICROBES AND INFECTION, 2016, 18: 310-21.
Lohse MB, Gulati M, Johnson AD, et al. Development and regulation of single- and multi-species Candida albicans biofilms. NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY, 2018, 16: 19-31.
Pappas PG, Rex JH, Sobel JD, et al. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 2004, 38: 161-89.
Xu LL, Wang GQ, Ge YQ, et al. Clinical Observation on Bacteriostatic Effect of Four Kinds of Gargles on Candida Albicans. Journal of Nursing, 2015: 6-9.
Wang Y. Contrasting analysis on effect of cetylpyridinium chloride and povidone iodine on oral candidiasis. Journal of Clinical Medicine in Practice, 2012, 16: 118-20.
Herrera D, Escudero N, Perez L, et al. Clinical and microbiological effects of the use of a cetylpyridinium chloride dentifrice and mouth rinse in orthodontic patients: a 3-month randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod, 2018, 40: 465-74.
Browse journals by subject